By J. R. Averill
In contemporary years, very much has been written regarding aggression; one other booklet at the related subject may appear superfluous at the present. despite the fact that, the current quantity isn't just-or even primarily-about aggres sion. it really is, really, a e-book on anger. Anger and aggression are heavily comparable phenomena, and it's not attainable to debate one with no the opposite. but, no longer all anger is competitive, nor can all aggression be attributed to anger. accordingly, a little diversified concerns follow to every. much more importantly, the kind of theoretical generalizations one could make differs based upon no matter if the first concentration is on anger or aggression. the current quantity is subtitled "an essay on emotion." this means that the generalizations to be drawn have extra to do with emotional responses (e.g., grief, love, envy, etc.) than with quite a few different types of aggression (e.g., riots, battle, crimes of violence, etc.). acknowledged just a little otherwise, anger is the following getting used as a paradigm case for the examine of emotion, now not for the research of aggression.
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Additional info for Anger and Aggression: An Essay on Emotion
Emotional meanings. We have said that the (reflective) experience of emotion involves an interpretation of one's own behavior in relation to situational cues, and we have described in an abstract way the kinds of rules that help guide the interpretation. , as anger or fear). That something is the meaning of the emotion. For example, one would not say of a rabbit fleeing from a fox that it was committed to a particular course of action, no matter how intense or persistent the response. 9 24 1: The Nature of Emotion A concrete example may help to clarify the nature of emotional meanings.
Be that as it may, language is the royal road to conscious experience. This fact has been recognized by many thinkers of diverse persuasion. "Language is as old as consciousness, language is practical consciousness, as it exists for other men, and for that reason is really beginning to exist for me personally as well; for language, like consciousness, only arises from the need, the necessity, of intercourse with other men" (Marx & Engels, 1845-1846/ 1939, p. 19). "The subtlety and strength of consciousness are always in proportion to the capacity for communication ...
331) Of course, it is one thing to say that protoplasm meets society in terms of shared norms and role behavior; it is quite another thing to say how that meeting takes place. That is the major prupose of the present chapter. In general, I have little sympathy for the romantic notion that human beings are basically a pacific species and that, were it not for the corrupting influence of society, humans would live peacefully and harmoniously with one another. Although there are records of a few primitive societies in which aggression appears to be minimal or absent, that at best provides a hope for the future and not a testimony to the past.