By Karen S. Gibb, John W. Randles (auth.), Kerry F. Harris (eds.)
This sequence explores how vectors (carriers of affliction brokers, corresponding to bugs) gather, hold and hence transmit pathogens to hosts. It covers the spectrum of vectors, together with providers of plant pathogens in addition to medically similar pathogens. The Chapters in quantity 7 comprise: 1. K. Gibb, J.W. Randles: Transmission of velvet tobacco mottle virus and similar viruses through the mirid Cyrto- peltis nicotianae. 2. N. Carter, R. Harrington: elements influencing aphid inhabitants dynamics and behaviour and the results for virus unfold. three. R.H. Bagnall: Cyclic epidemics of aphid-borne potato viruses in Northern seed-potato-growing components. four. C.J. Andrews, R.C. Sinha: Interactions among barley yellow dwarf virus an infection and winter-stress tolerance in cereals. five. J.R. DeLoach, G. Spates: synthetic diets for blood feeding bugs: a evaluate. 6. I. Maudlin: Transmission of African trypanosomiasis: interactions between Tsetse immune procedure, symbionts, and parasites. 7. C. Chastel, I. Humphery-Smith: Mosquito spiroplasmas. the 1st 4 chapters disguise issues in plant virus transmission via bugs. the ultimate 3 chapters specialize in human and animal affliction institutions with bollid-feeding flies.
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Additional info for Advances in Disease Vector Research
Much of this movement must occur during the early winter in autumn-sown crops but the weather factors that influence it have not been quantified. The effect of temperature on the spread of lettuce necrotic yellows (LNYV) by Hyperomyzus lactucae is better understood. The peak incidence of LNYV occurs 4 to 5 weeks after the peak numbers of H. lactucae because of the time taken for an infected aphid to become infective and for lettuce to show symptoms. Alate H. lactucae were trapped only when the mean weekly temperature was between 15 and 22°C, and most aphids were caught when the weekly windrun was between 1280 and 1920 km and rainfall was low (86).
Carter and R. Harrington pisum does not always retain PEMV for life (108). 3 days at 30°C. The retention periods are slightly longer in alatae. Semipersistent viruses are retained usually for longer than nonpersistent ones, but neither survive a vector molt. The semipersistent SYV is retained in Chaetosiphon fragaefolii for 3 to 4 days longer at 4SC that at 21°C, but no details are given of the actual periods nor how they relate to time of molts (78). The retention times of nonpersistent viruses are short that the effects of temperature on their duration greatly affects the distance that the virus can be transported viably during aphid flight.
Persicae but also harbors BWYV. The majority of rape plants are probably infected, although it is difficult to transmit the rape strains of BWYV to sugar beet (99). Cultivations and Fertilizers The effects of cultivations and fertilizers on aphid population development are usually indirect, with the primary effect being either on the host plant or on popUlations of natural enemies that prey on aphids. Ploughing, for example, reduces populations of soil invertebrates, including polyphagous predators, so that the use of minimum cultivations is likely to retain the highest populations of predators (31, 73).