Academic Freedom and the Japanese Imperial University, by Byron K. Marshall

By Byron K. Marshall

Byron ok. Marshall bargains the following a dramatic research of the altering nature and boundaries of educational freedom in prewar Japan, from the Meiji recovery to the eve of worldwide battle II.Meiji leaders based Tokyo Imperial college within the overdue 19th century to supply their new govt with precious technical and theoretical wisdom. a tutorial elite, armed with Western studying, steadily emerged and wielded major impression during the country. while a few college contributors criticized the behavior of the Russo-Japanese warfare the govt threatened dismissals. the school and management banded jointly, forcing the govt. to backtrack. through 1939, even if, this unity had eroded. the normal reason for this erosion has been the inability of a practice of autonomy between prewar eastern universities. Marshall argues in its place that those later purges resulted from the university's 40-year fixation on institutional autonomy on the rate of educational freedom.Marshall's finely nuanced research is complemented by means of broad use of quantitative, biographical, and archival assets.

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He had attended the Tokyo Foreign Language School, rather than the Kaisei Gakko, but in 1877 had been chosen to study at the University of Lyons. After six years abroad, Tomii returned to take a post in the Justice Ministry and serve as part-time lecturer at Todai. In 1885, at twenty-seven, he was assigned to the school full time and was promoted to professor. Terao Toru (1858-1925) was the other member of the Tomizu group who was not an alumnus of Todai. He had come to the law faculty via the Justice Ministry law school and service in the Yokohama courts.

There, as was common among German students, he spent his three years shifting from one university to anotherfirst Heidelberg, then Halle, and finally Berlin, where Hozumi Nobushige had studied seven years before. Kanai rounded out his sojourn abroad with a year in a second country, Englanda pattern not uncommon for the holders of such fellowships. By the time he returned in 1890 at the age of twenty-five, the formal study of economics had been transferred to the College of Law. There a full professorship awaited him.

These 17. Fuller detail on this process can be found in the various official histories of Tokyo University; see Todai, Gojunenshi; and Todai, Gakujutsu taikan. For the situation regard-mg legal studies, there is a convenient summary in English in Spaulding, Imperial Japan's Higher Civil Service Examinations, pp. 7071. < previous page page_31 next page > < previous page next page > page_32 Page 32 Table 2-1 Professors at Todai, 1877-1890 1877 1881 1884 1886 1890 Foreigners 23 (66%) 13 (48%) 29 (58%) 9 (15%) 19 (21%) Japanese 12 (34%) 14 (52%) 21 (42%) 51 (85%) 70 (79%) Foreigners 4 (67%) 6 (42%) 6 (35%) 8 (38%) 13 (35%) Japanese 2 (33%) 8 (58%) 11 (65%) 13 (62%) 24 (65%) Law and letters Sciences, medicine, engineering, agriculture SOURCE: Todai, Gojunenshi, pp.

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