By John Vattanky
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Extra info for A System of Indian Logic: The Nyaya Theory of Inference: Analysis, Text, Translation and Interpretation of the anumana section of Karikavali, Muktavali and Dinakari
A further objection is that even if pratiyogivyadhikaranatva is accepted, there would be the fault of too narrow application in the inference 'time has jar because it (time) has the dimension of time (kälo ghatavän kMaparimänät)\ since infinite time is the substratum of all things and therefore also of all the counterpositives of all absences. One answer to this objection is that the absence of jar qualified by the difference from infinite time should be here taken as pratiyogivyadhikaranahhäva, since though infinite time is the substratum of jar it is not the substratum of the jar qualified by difference from infinite time.
Interprets yädrsavisistavisayakatva as yadr üp ävacchinnavisayakatva and tattvam in the definition is taken as tadvattvam. e. the knowledge of hrada has only hradatvävacchinnavisayakatva and not also vahnyabhävacchinnavisayakatva. Only the knowledge vahnyabhävavaddhrada has hradatvävacchinnavisayatä and vahnyabhävävacchinnavisoyatä. And tattva is interpreted as tadvattvam and so the definition means vahnyabhävahradatvavän which is the same as vahnyabhävavaddhrada and this is a fallacy. There are further objections also to this refined definition of fallacy and they too are answered.
M. first of all gives the reason why this final definition is given. This is because the provisional definition does not apply in the case of inferences where that which is to be established is purely affirmative such as knowability and so on. Besides, there will be the fault of too narrow application in such inferences as 'it has existence because it has universal'. This is because in universal and so on which are other than that which is to be established nothing occurs by the relation of inherence which is the relation of the determinant of the state of being reason.