By Sjoerd L. Bonting (Eds.)
This primary quantity has contributions from the U.S. (4), the USSR (2), Europe (2), and Japan (1). They contain experiences of a basic organic challenge aided by way of a few area experiments, investigations of organic difficulties encountered in spaceflight, use of microgravity for a biotechnological function, and technical amenities constructed for animal and mobilephone study in house. subject matters contain: the consequences of long term house missions at the human physique (Grigoriev, USSR); skeletal responses to microgravity (Morey-Holton an Arnaud, United States); gravity results on animal copy, advancements, and growing old (Miquel and Souza, Spain/United States); neurovestibular body structure in fish (Watanabe, Takabayashi, Tanaka, and Yanagihara, Japan); gravity conception and move in crops (Brown, United States); improvement of upper vegetation less than altered gravitational stipulations (Merkys and Laurniavcius, Lithunaia, USSR); gravity results on unmarried cells (Cogoli and Gmunder, Switzerland); protein crystal progress in area (Bonting, Kishiyama, and Arno, United States).
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Fluid flow14 and cell deformation induced by mechanical t e n s i ~ n ' ~ -or ' ~ p r e ~ s u r e ' ~are . ' ~ reported t o . be important mediators of the process. Fluid flow under hydrostatic pressure would be forced through bone interstices; the fluid movement may deform cells and displace positive counterions from fixed negative charges located in the bone matrix, thus producing an electrical potential gradient in the direction of fluid f l ~ w . s~~ or may directly stimulate these cells to elaborate proteins and polypeptides, including collagen and noncollagenous proteins, enzymes associated with mineralization, and various local growth factors.
MOREY-HOLTON and SARA BOND ARNAUD 40 either return to Earth or movement on the surface of other planets or their moons (for example, Earth’s moon or Mars). B. Skeletal Composition and Function Bone is a living, dynamic tissue characterized physically by hardness and rigidity and histologically by a sparse cell population relative to extracellular substance. Bone is the strongest biological material on Earth on a weight basis. It is composed of the inorganic mineral hydroxyapatite, which contributes stiffness,and an organic matrix or osteoid, which conveys strength and stability.
Red Blood Cell Metabolism in Prolonged Manned Flights. Kosmicheskaya Biologiya i Aviakosmicheskaya Medizina, 19(5):20-23, 1985 (in Russian). 33. G. Enzyme Activity of Blood Serum after LongTerm Spaceflights. Kosmicheskaya Biologiya i Aviakosmicheskaya Medizina, 18(5):8 1-82, 1984 (in Russian). The Effects of Prolonged Spaceflights on the Human Body 35 34. V. Evaluation of Changes in Human Axial Skeletal Bone Structures during Long-Term Spaceflight. Kosmicheskuya Biologiyu i Aviukosmicheskuyu Medizinu, 18(2):33-37, 1984 (in Russian).